Sugar curve - the norm for points in the glucose tolerance test, how the analysis is carried out and deciphering

In case of diabetes, each patient must be tested, called the "sugar curve", such a study of the level of glucose in the blood is necessarily carried out during pregnancy to clarify the question of whether a woman has a normal level of sugar concentration. A glucose tolerance test, as this analysis is also called, helps to correctly diagnose diabetes mellitus, a violation of insulin production, and to establish the characteristics of the course of the disease.

Related articles
  • Recipes for making cherry jelly for the winter with gelatin
  • Symptoms and treatment of gallstone disease
  • MAO inhibitors - what is it, a list of drugs and mechanism of action

What is the sugar curve

The glucose tolerance test (abbreviated GTT) is a laboratory test that is used by endocrinology to determine the state of glucose tolerance needed to diagnose diseases such as prediabetes and diabetes. The study determines the indicators of blood sugar in the patient on an empty stomach and after eating, physical activity. The glucose tolerance test is distinguished by the route of administration: oral and intravenous.

When carbohydrates enter the body, the amount of sugar in the blood rises in 10-15 minutes, increasing to 10 mmol / L. During normal functioning of the pancreas, after 2-3 hours, sugar returns to normal - 4.2-5.5 mmol / l. An increase in glucose concentration after 50 years is not considered an age-related normal manifestation. At any age, the appearance of such a sign indicates the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GTT is used to determine the disease.

Indications for the analysis

Such a diagnostic research method as the glycemic curve is necessary to find out the concentration of sugar in the blood at different times and to know the body's response to the additional load of glucose administration. In addition to people who have already been diagnosed with diabetes, HTT is prescribed in the following cases:

  • if the patient's weight is rapidly increasing;
  • Sugar was found in urine;
  • constantly elevated pressure;
  • diagnosed with polycystic ovary disease;
  • during pregnancy (if urine, weight gain, pressure are abnormal);
  • with a genetic predisposition (the presence of relatives with diabetes).

Preparation for analysis

Eating high-carbohydrate foods may produce incorrect results. During the three days preceding the test, you should not change the diet, the use of drugs must be agreed with the doctor. For the reliability of the research result, it is assumed to be in a calm state, it is forbidden to smoke and physically strain. When menstruating, it is better to postpone the testing.

How to donate

The patient donates blood to the sugar curve from a vein or from a finger, according to the type of sampling, their norms are approved. The diagnosis provides for repeated donation of blood: the first time the sample is taken on an empty stomach, after a 12-hour fast (only water is allowed to be consumed). After that, you need to take glucose dissolved in a glass of water. It is advisable to test the glycemic curve every half hour for two hours after taking a carbohydrate load. However, in practice, one analysis is more often carried out 0.5-2 hours after the consumption of a glucose solution.

How to dilute glucose for sugar analysis

For the test, you will need glucose, which must be taken with you, since the solution must be prepared immediately before use. To dissolve, you need clean non-carbonated water. Referring to the study, the doctor determines the desired concentration of the solution for the procedure. So, 50 grams of glucose is taken for an hour test, 75 grams for a 2-hour test, and 100 grams for a three-hour test. Glucose is diluted in a glass of boiled or non-carbonated mineral water. It is allowed to add a little lemon juice (citric acid crystals), since not everyone can drink very sweet water on an empty stomach.

  • How to lose 5 kg, 10 kg in a week at home
  • Causes of diabetes mellitus
  • Fat-burning cocktails for weight loss

Interpretation of the results

The scores take into account the factors that influence the outcome, and it is not possible to diagnose diabetes on the basis of a test alone. The result of the glycemic curve is influenced by the patient's bed rest, problems with the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of tumors, infectious diseases that interfere with the absorption of sugar. The result of a glucose tolerance test significantly depends on the use of psychotropic, diuretic drugs, antidepressants, morphine, as well as caffeine and adrenaline. Distortion is possible if the laboratory does not follow strict instructions for taking blood.

The norm of the sugar curve

The sugar load is necessary to reveal hidden, possible metabolic disorders of the body. The norms of results are established depending on the method of sampling - from a vein or from a finger:

State of the body

Blood concentration, mmol / L

venous blood

capillary

Normal

to 6.10

to 5.50

Prediabetes

6.10-7.0

5.50-6, 0

Impaired glucose tolerance

7.0-11.1

6.0-7.8

Diabetes

> 11.1

> 7.8

The analysis is not carried out with the indicators of the first intake on an empty stomach (the probability of hyperglycemic coma)

11.1

7.8

Sugar curve during pregnancy

The body carries a heavy load in pregnant women. At this time, exacerbations of chronic diseases or the appearance of new ones are possible. Under the normal course of the process, the female body must produce more insulin than in the normal state. Sugar curve analysis during pregnancy is performed several times for greater accuracy. The research norm in this position is somewhat changed.

The glucose tolerance test will help the doctor determine the absence or presence of a problem, taking into account the characteristics of the woman's body. If, after the sweet solution, the decoding of the test shows an increased sugar level, a second analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. The disease is confirmed by the following indicators:

  • fasting blood> 5.3 mmol / l;
  • one hour after exercise> 10 mmol / L;
  • after two hours> 8.6 mmol / L.

Possible deviations

on the day of sampling, avoid stress, physical activity, exclude alcohol, medications. Treatment is prescribed if a deviation from the norms is noted in both cases. The analysis of pregnant women will be better interpreted by a gynecologist-endocrinologist who knows the characteristics of a woman's body in a position. The glucose tolerance test also reveals other diseases, for example, a decrease in the indicator after exercise indicates hypoglycemia.

The results of GTT indicate the following possible states of the organism:

  • pituitary hyperfunction;
  • the intensity of the thyroid gland;
  • damage to the nervous tissue of the brain;
  • disorders of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system;
  • infectious and inflammatory processes;
  • inflammation (acute, chronic) of the pancreas.

Video

Attention! The information presented in the article is for informational purposes only. The materials of the article do not call for self-treatment. Only a qualified doctor can diagnose and give recommendations for treatment, based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.
.